I would like to express my sincerely gratitude to Professor Dr. Tetsuya
Osaka for his supervision and continuous encouragement. I wish to express my
hearty gratitude to Professor Dr. Takayuki Homma for his advice and
encouragement. I would express my sincere appreciation to Professor Dr.
Kazuyuki Kuroda, chapter 4 in my thesis would not be achieved without his
cooperation. I would appreciate Professor Dr. Bruno Scrosati, University "La
Sapienza" Rome for valuable discussion and encouragement. I would extend my
sincere appreciation to Professor Dr. Yoshiyuki Sugawara, Professor Dr. Hiroyuki
Nishide, and Professor Dr. Yosi Shacham-Diamand for their valuable suggestions
and encouragement. And I would like to thank Associate Professor Dr. Toshiyuki
Momma for his valuable suggestions and discussion, my thesis would not be
reached completion without his advice. I would like to express my appreciation to
Professor Dr. Toru Asahi, Professor Dr. Kiyoshi Kanamura, Tokyo Metropolitan
University, Professor Dr. Masayoshi Watanabe, Yokohama National University,
Professor Dr. Hideki Masuda, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Professor Dr. N.
Furukawa, Dr. J.-E. Park and Professor Dr. Soo-Gil Park, Chungbuk National
University, for their valuable advice and discussions. It is a great pleasure to
express my deepest gratitude to Dr. Y. Okinaka for his advice, correction and
encouragement. I would tender my acknowledgments to Dr. Y. Yamauchi, Dr. H.
Mukaibo, Mr. Y. Fukuhara, Ms. A. Takai，and Mr. M. Komatsu, chapter 4 in my
thesis would not be accomplished without their cooperation. My appreciation goes
to all the people who have shared their time and talent with me in my everyday
battery life: Dr. S Motokawa, Mr. S. Kamei, Mr. H. Ito, Dr. T. Shimizu, Ms. J. Kim,
Mr. T. Sumi, Mr. N. Chihara, Ms. M. Hosoda, Mr. H. Kitoh, Mr. S. Tominaka, Mr. Y.
Wada, Ms. M. Iwasaki, Mr. M. Ueda, Mr. H. Obata, Ms. K. Saigusa, Mr. N.
Akiyama, Mr. R. Sebata, Mr. K. Takada, Mr. Y. Fukuhara, Ms. C. Tatsumi, Mr. S.
Ohta, Mr. K. Goto, Mr. S. Yamagami, Mr. H. Kawase, Mr. T. Kawano, and Mr. Y.
Nakamura. My colleagues, Mr. H. Iida, Ms. M. Matsunaga, Ms. K. Sakata and all
the other members of applied physical chemistry lab. So many of you have made me
feel at home and sometimes work hard. Finally I express greatest thanks to my
parents, Mr. Shinji Nara and Ms. Sayoko Nara, for deep affection and constant